Terms and Definitions:

Bereishit lit. "upon beginning," the book of Genesis
Shmot lit., "names," the book of Exodus
Va'yikra lit. "he called" or "he will call," the book of Leviticus, a/k/a a book only Tup could love (Va'yikra is considered the most difficult book of the Torah to master and Tup couldn't get enough of it)
Bamidbar lit. "in the wilderness," the book of Numbers
Devarim lit. "words," the book of Deuteronomy
Converso someone who accepted conversion rather than expulsion in Spain or Portugal, 15th century
Marrano someone who accepted conversion rather than expulsion but continued to practice Judaism secretly
hamische Yiddish for many things, all of them good; a hamische person is a thoroughly decent and honorable person; a hamische place is someplace you immediately feel welcome, at home.
frumeh Yiddish for very orthodox, extremely religious
Torah lit. "instruction," the first five books of the Bible, the scrolls themselves, the Bible, the Bible + the Mishnah, the Bible +  the Mishnah + the Gemarra, the process of Biblical study
Seder lit. "order," the Passover ritual dinner
Mishnah first written version of the oral "law" and traditions (3rd century C.E., ff)
Gemarra Rabbinical commentary on the Mishnah; Mishnah + Gemarra compose the Talmud; the Palestinian Talmud was published in the late 4th century C.E.; the Babylonian Talmud, about 100 years later.
dvar Torah Pl. d'vrai Torah, "words of Torah," sermon
chaver pl. chaverim, friend, companion, comrade only more so
p'shat plain or simple meaning
parshat or "parshah," the weekly section of the Torah read on Shabbat
Shabbat Sabbath, Saturday (Ashzenazic pronounciation is "Shabbos")
Masekhet Tractate (pl. masekhtot)
perke Chapter (pl. perakim)
pasuk Verse (pl. pesukim)